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page last updated January 26, 2015  
Screening Tests Available

You will see mention of the term CHIC number below.
The tests that are a component of a CHIC number are recommended screening tests for breeding stock.
The CHIC database is a tool that collects health information on individual animals from multiple sources. A CHIC number is issued when test results are entered into the database satisfying each breed specific requirement, and when the owner of the dog has opted to release the results into the public domain.
For more information  - Canine Health Information Center

 

Hip Dysplasia - (recommended) OFA, PennHIP (mandatory for CHIC number)
Is a terrible genetic disease because of the various degrees of arthritis (also called degenerative joint disease, arthrosis, osteoarthrosis) it can eventually produce, leading to pain and debilitation.  No one can predict when or even if a dysplastic dog will start showing clinical signs of lameness due to pain. There are multiple environmental factors such as caloric intake, level of exercise, and weather that can affect the severity of clinical signs and phenotypic expression (radiographic changes). There is no rhyme or reason to the severity of radiographic changes correlated with the clinical findings. There are a number of dysplastic dogs with severe arthritis that run, jump, and play as if nothing is wrong and some dogs with barely any arthritic radiographic changes that are severely lame. Approximately 18% of x-rays from beagles, submitted to OFA, are evaluated as dysplastic.

Musladin-Lueke Syndrome - (recommended)  (mandatory requirement  for CHIC number) (UC-Davis-VGL) 
MSL - is a genetic disease of the Beagle that affects the development and structure of connective tissue. It is multi-systemic, with involvement of multiple organs, including bone, heart, skin, and muscle. MLS is inherited as a recessive trait. Current evidence suggests that dogs that have two copies of the mutant gene are affected with MLS, though the severity of clinical signs can be variable. Dogs inheriting only one copy of the mutant gene can show subtle signs but do not appear to have health-related defects. To the best available knowledge, carriers cannot be identified based on their appearance.

Thyroid Certification
- (recommended) (OFA)  (optional for CHIC number) 
Autoimmune thyroiditis is the most common cause of primary hypothyroidism in dogs. The disease has variable onset, but tends to clinically manifest itself at 2 to 5 years of age. Dogs may be clinically normal for years, only to become hypothyroid at a later date. The marker for autoimmune thyroiditis, thyroglobulin autoantibody formation, usually occurs prior to the occurrence of clinical signs.  Aproximately 20% of beagles tested do not test normal. 

Cardiac Certification
- (recommended) (OFA)  (optional for CHIC number)
Congenital heart diseases in dogs are malformations of the heart or great vessels. The lesions characterizing congenital heart defects are present at birth and may develop more fully during perinatal and growth periods. Many congenital heart defects are thought to be genetically transmitted from parents to offspring; however, the exact modes of inheritance have not been precisely determined for all cardiovascular malformations. 

Eyes
- (recommended) (CERF)  (mandatory for CHIC)
There are many eye disorders that are screened for to receive a eye clearance.  For more information  please go to the
EYE SECTION on known health in beagles.  

Factor VII
 deficiency in beagles (Vet Gen) or  (PennGen)
is known to cause a mild bleeding disorder.  This disorder has been known to occur in beagles for decades, a few years ago a test was developed to identify carriers of this genetic trait.  There are only rare reports of severe bleeding requiring blood transfusions from Factor 7 deficient beagles as many of the affected dogs may remain totally asymptomatic. This autosomal recessive disorder maybe unknowingly passed on through generations via asymptomatic carriers but also thru affected dogs as they may not show obvious signs. 
Affected dogs "may" exhibit an increased bleeding tendency following trauma or surgery.   The frequency of this genetic deficiency in beagles is unknown, but affected beagles have been noted in the United States, Canada, Europe and Australia. 

PKU    Pyruvate kinase deficiency in dogs (PennGen)
is an inherited lack of an enzyme (pyruvate kinase) in the red blood cells of an affected animal. This enzyme is required for red blood cells to survive for a normal length of time in the blood, and when it is missing, the red blood cells break down and are destroyed prematurely. This leads to lifelong anemia in the affected animal. The symptoms of anemia are lack of energy, low exercise tolerance, easy fatiguability, and probably reduced fertility.  This disease is inherited as an autosomal recessive. This means that affected animals have two doses of the mutant gene. Dogs that have one mutant and one normal gene are called carriers. Carriers are not ill (they do not have anemia), but can produce affected offspring if mated to another carrier. 

Elbow Dysplasia (OFA) 
is a general term used to identify an inherited polygenic disease in the elbow of dogs.
Three specific etiologies make up this disease and they can occur independently or in conjunction with one another. These etiologies include: 

  1. Pathology involving the medial coronoid of the ulna (FCP)
  2. Osteochondritis of the medial humeral condyle in the elbow joint (OCD)
  3. Ununited anconeal process (UAP)

Patellar Luxation (OFA)
The patella, or kneecap, is part of the stifle joint (knee). In patellar luxation, the kneecap luxates, or pops out of place, either in a medial or lateral position.

 

Information on all testing and certification regarding OFA is from their website.