Hip Dysplasia -
(mandatory for CHIC number)
Is a terrible genetic disease because of the various
degrees of arthritis (also called degenerative joint disease,
arthrosis, osteoarthrosis) it can eventually produce, leading
to pain and debilitation. No one can predict when or even if
a dysplastic dog will start showing clinical signs of lameness
due to pain. There are multiple environmental factors such as
caloric intake, level of exercise, and weather that can affect
the severity of clinical signs and phenotypic expression
(radiographic changes). There is no rhyme or reason to the
severity of radiographic changes correlated with the clinical
findings. There are a number of dysplastic dogs with severe
arthritis that run, jump, and play as if nothing is wrong and
some dogs with barely any arthritic radiographic changes that
are severely lame. Approximately 18% of x-rays from beagles,
submitted to OFA, are evaluated as dysplastic.
(mandatory requirement for CHIC
MSL - is a genetic disease of the Beagle that affects the
development and structure of connective tissue. It is
multi-systemic, with involvement of multiple organs, including
bone, heart, skin, and muscle. MLS is inherited as a recessive
trait. Current evidence suggests that dogs that have two
copies of the mutant gene are affected with MLS, though the
severity of clinical signs can be variable. Dogs inheriting
only one copy of the mutant gene can show subtle signs but do
not appear to have health-related defects. To the best
available knowledge, carriers cannot be identified based on
(optional for CHIC number)
Autoimmune thyroiditis is the most common cause of primary
hypothyroidism in dogs. The disease has variable onset, but
tends to clinically manifest itself at 2 to 5 years of age.
Dogs may be clinically normal for years, only to become
hypothyroid at a later date. The marker for autoimmune
thyroiditis, thyroglobulin autoantibody formation, usually
occurs prior to the occurrence of clinical signs.
Aproximately 20% of beagles tested do not test normal.
(optional for CHIC number)
Congenital heart diseases in dogs are malformations
of the heart or great vessels. The lesions characterizing
congenital heart defects are present at birth and may develop
more fully during perinatal and growth periods. Many
congenital heart defects are thought to be genetically
transmitted from parents to offspring; however, the exact
modes of inheritance have not been precisely determined for
all cardiovascular malformations.
(mandatory for CHIC)
There are many eye disorders that are screened for to receive
a eye clearance. For more information please go to the
on known health in beagles.
is known to cause a mild bleeding disorder. This disorder
has been known to occur in beagles for decades, a few years
ago a test was developed to identify carriers of this genetic
trait. There are only rare reports of severe bleeding
requiring blood transfusions from Factor 7 deficient beagles
as many of the affected dogs may remain totally asymptomatic.
This autosomal recessive disorder maybe unknowingly passed on
through generations via asymptomatic carriers but also thru
affected dogs as they may not show obvious signs.
Affected dogs "may" exhibit
an increased bleeding tendency following trauma or surgery.
The frequency of this genetic deficiency in beagles is
unknown, but affected beagles have been noted in the United
States, Canada, Europe and Australia.
PKU Pyruvate kinase
deficiency in dogs
is an inherited lack of an enzyme (pyruvate kinase) in the
red blood cells of an affected animal. This enzyme is required
for red blood cells to survive for a normal length of time in
the blood, and when it is missing, the red blood cells break
down and are destroyed prematurely. This leads to lifelong
anemia in the affected animal. The symptoms of anemia are lack
of energy, low exercise tolerance, easy fatiguability, and
probably reduced fertility. This disease is inherited as an
autosomal recessive. This means that affected animals have two
doses of the mutant gene. Dogs that have one mutant and one
normal gene are called carriers. Carriers are not ill (they do
not have anemia), but can produce affected offspring if mated
to another carrier.
is a general term used to identify an inherited polygenic
disease in the elbow of dogs.
Three specific etiologies
make up this disease and they can occur independently or in
conjunction with one another. These etiologies include:
- Pathology involving the medial
coronoid of the ulna (FCP)
- Osteochondritis of the medial
humeral condyle in the elbow joint (OCD)
- Ununited anconeal process (UAP)
The patella, or kneecap, is part of the stifle joint
(knee). In patellar luxation, the kneecap luxates, or pops out
of place, either in a medial or lateral position.
Information on all testing and certification
regarding OFA is from their website.